There are three types of GVROs that may be issued in California:

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Emergency GVRO (form EPO-002): An emergency GVRO is a type of order that only law enforcement officers can request. This is available to officers when they encounter a person who poses “immediate and present danger of injury to self or others as a result of having a gun” and the requesting officer concludes that an emergency order is needed to effectively intervene. This emergency order is issued verbally by a judge (whom the officers may call 24 hours a day, seven days a week), is effective immediately, and expires after 21 days. The issuance of an emergency GVRO does not preclude a law enforcement officer, family member, certain teacher or school employee, co-worker, or employer from petitioning for a standard temporary GVRO, or a final GVRO. Because the emergency GVRO requires ‘immediate and present danger,’ it will be requested by law enforcement at the scene of the emergency and issued to the officer orally by the judge. The officer will then memorialize the order on form EPO-002. When an emergency GVRO is filed with the court, a hearing will be scheduled within 21 days to decide if a final GVRO lasting one to five years is necessary.

Temporary Gun Violence Restraining Order (form GV-110): Both law enforcement officers and immediate family members (defined above) of the subject of the petition may petition for a temporary Gun Violence Restraining Order. The petitioner fills out paperwork that explains to a judge why the person may be dangerous. The judge may issue a temporary GVRO when there is a “substantial likelihood” that the subject “poses a significant danger of harm to self or others in the near future by having access to a firearm.” Temporary GVRO petitions are typically decided on the same day they are filed and may be in effect for up to 21 days. A hearing will be scheduled by the court within 21 days of the judicial officer’s decision to approve the temporary GVRO or not, at the subsequent hearing, the court will decide if a final GVRO lasting one to five years is necessary (see below).

Gun Violence Restraining Order After Notice and Hearing (form GV-100): A final Gun Violence Restraining Order lasting between one and five years may be obtained after a notice to the subject and court hearing in which the petitioner is able to demonstrate “clear and convincing evidence that the subject poses a significant danger of injury to self or others.” Temporary and emergency orders may also be extended into a final GVRO if approved by a judge after notice to the subject and a subsequent hearing. Final GVROs can be renewed before they expire (see “Can a GVRO be renewed?” below).